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This questionnaire had several components. Lean Library can solve it. Access to society journal content varies across our titles. According to Degnon et al. Several wood species are cut for activities such as cooking food, baking bread, house construction, or building canoes, but fish smoking remains the main drive behind tree felling. They are closely followed by smokers from Cameroon and Nigeria. The wood is considered very eco-friendly, as some Mango plantations harvest the trees for lumber after they have completed their useful fruit-bearing lifespan. The Pearson Correlation Test (r = .952) showed a strong correlation between the amount of wood consumed and the number of fish smoked. They were Eyengue, Idenau, Esobe, Njonji, Debundsha, Bakingili, Batoke, Down beach, and Tiko. This is supported by Ngoma (2005) who found that the smoking time of a cinderblock oven is 5 to 12 hr. 73 likes. Custom hand-crafted dog kennel crate furniture for you and a forever home for your best friend. Fish smokers have well-defined requirements for their activities. The author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article. The least used alternative energy source were coconut shells (Figure 5(c)) and palm kernel waste (Figure 5(d)). These fish smokers were mainly located in Down Beach, Idenau, Njonji, and Batoke. Despite their evident ecological value, and the fact that they constitute an important source of income for surrounding coastal communities, there is a lack of mangrove protection measures in many tropical regions (Spaninks & Beukering, 1997). Those who said the forests were becoming depleted supported their opinion by saying that the distance between where the wood is cut and where it is sold is increasing all the time. Many fish smokers in Cameroon, particularly those in the south west region, have at least primary school education. Figure 3 shows wood utilization intensity in our study sites. Choosing the best wood for smoking meat can be a challenge! (a) Suspended iron banda. smoke for making babies strong (Belyuen) axe handles and digging sticks (Belyuen) Aegialitis annulata ... An important bivalve which is found in dead and decaying mangrove wood is called "mangrove worm", Teredo spp. describe the socioeconomic lives of those involved in fish smoking; identify the sources of energy, wood species, wood cost, and alternative fuels used; determine the yields of different oven types and the amount of fuel they require. Because of population pressure, this artisanal technique of preservation consumes greater quantities of mangrove wood each year and is having a progressively detrimental impact on mangrove forest sustainability. A., Nguekam, E. (, Chabi, N. W., Konfo, C. T., Emonde, P. D., Chichi, M. T. C., Sika, K. J. C., Alamou, Y., Baba-Moussa, L. S. (, Degnon, R. G., Agossou, V. E., Adjou, E. S., Dahouenon-Ahoussi, E., Soumanou, M. M., Sohounhloue, D. C. (, Din, N., Ngo-Massou, V. M., Essomè-Koum, G. L., Ndema-Nsombo, E., Kottè-Mapoko, E., Nyamsi-Moussian, L. (, Ekomy, A. S., Bruneau, D., Mbega, D. J., Aregba, W. (, Fall, N. G., Tounkara, L. T., Diop, M. B., Thiaw, O. T., Thonart, P. (, Feka, N. Z., Chuyong, G. B., Ajonina, G. N. (, Ngo-Massou, V. M., Essomè-Koum, G. L., Kottè-Mapoko, E., Din, N. (, Oulaï, S. F., Koffl, R. A., Koussemon, M., Dje, M., Kakou, C., Kamenan, A. The study found that 60.5% of fish smokers had at least 10 years of experience in smoking. D:20080915232648 The study was conducted in Ndian and Fako department, in the south-west region of Cameroon. The largest scale fish smokers in the study area were Ghanaian, the majority of whom (62%) were located in Idenau. Most respondents said they had been smoking fish since they were young and that they had inherited work spaces, equipment, and necessary skills from their mothers. This study also showed that 47% of wood used by fish smokers comes from mangrove forests. Our study found that with traditional ovens, smoking approximately 20 kg of fish cost 7€, about 3.7 times higher than the 2€ cited by Djessouho (2015) in his socioeconomic analysis of fish smoking in Benin. A large percentage (76%) of wood used by fish smokers is red mangrove wood. Assuming that a person who has not had any schooling is illiterate, the illiteracy rate among respondents was 31.6%. A project aimed at introducing one type of cinderblock ovens (chokor ovens) in the region failed mainly because of insufficient training and monitoring by project managers. Women who live in villages in the mangrove forests also use red mangrove for their own domestic needs. Some respondents had not come across cinderblock ovens. Oven types in study site. However, Pouokam (2011), who worked on the firewood sector in the Kribi fisheries, found that smokers used Sambi (Uapaca guineensis). Fifty-two percent of respondents are large-scale smokers and are mainly located in Eyengue, Idenau, and Down Beach. The mangroves are currently valued for fuel wood use at 4146 Ghanaian cedis (US$2765) per ha within the Efasou community. Globally, mangrove forests are the most threatened tropical ecosystem and are being degraded and depleted at alarming rates (Polidoro et al., 2010). Dense, hard buttonwood, a mangrove look-alike, was once popular for smoking wood, but it’s scarce and I discourage using it. The quantity of wood consumed is governed not only by the amount of fish requiring smoking but also by the type of oven used. This site uses cookies. We can create ovens that consume less wood," he said. When there was a smoking session, the weight of the fish and of the wood used for smoking was measured and recorded. Wood is generally the preferred fuel for rural people because it is easily available, dispersed throughout the rural habitat, and can usually be obtained without major costs. Members Profile. Wood from a mangrove tree. Mangrove wood consumption for cooking and fish smoking from the Efasou community is estimated at 16 and 97m. This study found that 99.59% of respondents use traditional ovens. Please read and accept the terms and conditions and check the box to generate a sharing link. They use the oldest trees because large logs keep the fire going without refueling. Mangrove wood is harvested by local communities for many purposes, but most notably as fuel for fish smoking. Because there is no electricity in some villages in southwest Cameroon, and also because of population growth, there is considerable pressure on forest resources, which results in increasing deforestation. Thus, although the traditional ovens have a larger capacity per smoking session, the amount smoked per kg of wood is far less compared to the cinderblock oven, the smoking time is longer and the cost of wood is far higher. For this reason, it … Wood purchased by fish smokers usually came from mangrove forests, continental forests (Bomanas forest), agricultural fields, and home gardens (see Figure 8). Mangroves are known to sequester much more carbon than continental forests (Cordonnier, 2011). The Implications of Wood Exploitation for Fish Smoking on Mangrove Ecosystem Conservation in th... Mongabay.com Scientific Journal, Tropical Conservation Science, Reaches its Second Year of Existence, Angoni, H., Tatchim, A. P., Nkonmeneck, B. Our study found that all the fish smokers were women from Cameroon, Ghana, Nigeria, and Benin. Alejandro Estrada For many people, it is their sole livelihood. The amount of wood used in smoking by all respondents was twice the amount of fish smoked. Suspended iron bandas were the most common, used by 75.3% of our respondents. Your trusted wood smoking friend Gerry is here to help you out with finding the right wood for the job! Black mangrove flowers are a popular nectar source for honey bees, leading to the creation of "mangrove honey." Several oven types were used in the study sites, but 99.6% of fish smokers used a traditional oven (banda). This difference is likely due to different wood species being used, as well as to varying costs. Ghanaians were more represented in Idenau than in all other areas. We hope that this study will help underscore the alarming rate of mangrove depletion and thus encourage decision makers to implement conservation strategies for the sustainable management of mangrove forests through measures that also take into account the socioeconomic conditions of local populations. Sign in here to access free tools such as favourites and alerts, or to access personal subscriptions, If you have access to journal content via a university, library or employer, sign in here, Research off-campus without worrying about access issues. The climate is characterized by a brief dry season and a rainy season that last over nine months. Timber species such as Ilomba, Paduk, Zingana, and Tali were less commonly used as firewood. Table 2 shows the different alternative sources of energy used. The FAO studies in 2008 showed that cinderblock ovens reduced wood consumption by 50% over traditional ovens. The initiative stops the deforestation of mangrove wood as the women now use non-polluting solar driers to dry and smoke the fish. The Best Charcoal for Barbecue and Grilling. Our study focused on fish smoking activities in Ndian and Fako, in the southwest region of Cameroon. Our study found that suspended ovens have a ratio (wood quantity in kg/fish quantity in kg) of 2.3 over 53 hr of smoking. Indeed, this study found that red mangrove is the favored wood for fish smokers. More wood is used in Down Beach, and Eyengue, and particularly in Idenau, than in other communities. (c) Circular oven. Levels of education of fish smokers according to respondents. This increase in distance also increases the price of the wood. Wanda_Ra . Simply select your manager software from the list below and click on download. In Eyengue, it was sold in lots (see Figure 7), which comprise 120 pieces (see Figure 7) and cost 46€. Our mangrove wood is 100% legally harvested, processed and exported under the most strict international exports standards and we are shipping the best mangrove charcoal for BBQ all over the world. The result is that mangrove forests continue to be depleted at an uncontrolled rate. Figure 10 shows oven preferences. Maps were made using ArcView 3.2 software. Mangrove wood is still the main resource used for fish smoking in areas of Cameroon other than Kribi (Angoni et al., 2015). 2020-12-02T18:09:39-08:00 The conservation of mangrove ecosystems is thus becoming an increasingly urgent topic (Tiéga & Ouédraogo, 2012). View or download all content the institution has subscribed to. The hydrography is characterized by the Andokat and Rio Del Rey rivers, which converge in an estuary (Olivry, cited in Tadjoung & Effala, 2008). Direct observations were made of the conditions to which fish smokers were exposed (smoke, heat, flames). The smoking time is also shorter than with a traditional oven, and working conditions (smoke, heat, and fumes) are better. The bark was also used in the tanning process as a black dye for animal skins. Population growth has greatly increased the pressure on these resources in recent years. All interviews were conducted with the consent of respondents, and confidentiality was assured. Mangrove charcoal. It is now widely recognized, however, that conservation legislation is of fundamental importance to successful mangrove management systems (Van Lavieren et al., 2012 cited in Z. N. Feka, 2015). In their study of five communities in the same area, Mulo and Ngueguim (2014), found that 83% of fish smokers used traditional ovens and 11% used metal ovens. Post Reply. In the south-west region of the country, pressure on woody resources such as mangrove is particularly extreme. Fish smokers were asked how far they had to travel for their wood supply and the impact that distance had on their lives. We also found that the smoking time is almost 90% less than that of a traditional oven. Seventy-four percent of respondents said that the mangrove forests were depleted, 20% said they did not know and 6% said this was not the case. A balance needs to be found between consumption and preservation: This is the challenge for all parties involved in the fight for sustainable mangrove management in Cameroon. This gap is due to the fact that Azobe is not as widespread in the south-west region of Cameroon as it is in the southern region and also that red mangrove wood is still available, unlike in Kribi. At present, the implementation of law is an issue in Cameroon, and people are able to freely harvest as much wood as they want. We also stock Honeybrix Premium Briquettes and Premium Binchotan Charcoal We also stock a range of smoking pellets and chip to suit most needs. This dependence on red mangrove wood is due to its capacity to produce a great amount of heat energy (Ajonina & Usongo, 2001). endobj More specifically, we. Rhizophora mangle and Rhizophora harrisonii are also present. Login failed. Historically, indigenous people gathered the leaves for this salt, and the wood was an important fuel source for smoking fish. SAGE Publications Inc, unless otherwise noted. This result is also supported by Ndiaye and Diei-Ouadi (2009) who report a result of 2€ of fuel per 100 kg of fish for a cinderblock oven compared to 5€ for a traditional oven. Lumber, both new and used, is best to avoid when choosing wood to smoke. Manuscript content on this site is licensed under Creative Commons Licenses. Reasons for firewood preference according to respondents. Figure 2 shows that the illiteracy rate is very low in all communities except Debundscha. Mango was the most used third choice species (used by 15% of all respondents), and fruit trees were occasionally used. (d) Cinderblock oven. This ratio is more than twice what we found in our study, which is probably due to differences in size and species of the fish (Ngoma, 2005). Smoker or charcoal grill. For more information view the SAGE Journals Article Sharing page. Wood from mangrove forests is also used for housing material, scaffolding, fishing stakes and more. Finally, my biggest thanks go to the fish smokers for their collaboration in this study. application/pdf Alternative Energy Sources Used by Fish Smokers. The site is bordered to the north by Korup National Park, to the east by the city of Kumba, to the south by the Mungo river, and to the west by the Akwafe river, which forms the border between Cameroon and Nigeria (the Bakassi Peninsula). Questions were designed to elicit gender, marital status, age, study level, number of family members, nationality, and main professional activity (fishing, fish smoker, or fish seller). N. Z. Feka, Chuyong, and Ajonina (2009) found that the smoking time of a cinderblock oven is 30% less than a traditional oven. This difference could be due to the fact that the majority of fishermen in Cameroon are foreigners, unlike in Senegal, where the locals dominate the sector. A total of 243 fish smokers were surveyed. H��Wَ��}�W�CH��fI�� �##�$h%~��YZ. Primary school was the highest education level for most respondents (42.4%), 26% had secondary level. Related Species: None available. (2014) the sector is characterized by high levels of illiteracy 85%, 89%, and 95%, respectively. (b) Waste from beach. Mangrove branches wood charcoal is called as Kachi charcoal. Some of these plants include mangrove, poisonous walnut, sassafras, oleander, yew, tambootie, and laburnun. How to reduce wood consumption is now a central challenge for many governments, and one solution could be the use of more economical ovens. (2013), Djessouho (2015), and Chabi et al. Wet wood makes bad smoke. However, fish smokers are not always able to use the oven of their preference. Mangrove wood is harvested by local communities for many purposes, but most notably as fuel for fish smoking. Figure 8. (2014) suggest that this demand is because of taste of smoked fish. Size matters. the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies. They sometimes spend up to 400€ per month on wood and are mainly Ghanaian (47%) and Nigerian (30%). View or download all the content the society has access to. Our choice of fieldwork sites was thus partly determined by the relationship that the IRAD and MINEPIA had with fishing communities. Table 1 gives a summary of data obtained from each site. Villages located far from mangrove forests, or in areas where mangrove supplies have been exhausted, have collection teams to transport firewood on canoes, which they then sell. It has a harder, more dense wood which means it burns hotter and longer when compared to other charcoal types. In this Florida Keys fishing video, join us for a day of flats fishing in the lower keys on our flats boat. They are also safer to use, in that they do not generate as much heat and smoke as traditional ovens, and they smoke fish more cleanly (so that the fish are less carcinogenic). The study site is a coastal area, where there are many elongated banks of dry land. Sustainable management of mangrove forests in West Africa: A new policy perspective? However, Baryeh et al., cited in Oulaï et al. Cassava peelings (Figure 5(b)) were the second most used. These were selected according to their location (proximity to the IRAD)—as we needed to visit them 4 times a week. If you have access to a journal via a society or association membership, please browse to your society journal, select an article to view, and follow the instructions in this box. Most fish smokers used only two species: 64.6% did not use a third choice species. Villagers like mangrove wood for limekilns because it’s dense and burns hot enough to fully cook the shells into lime. uuid:f2839f3c-b169-4c67-9999-8eb88f192f10 There is an urgent need to address the sustainable management of this vital coastal ecosystem. They are formed of river alluvium which is relatively rich in organic matter (Tadjoung & Effala, 2008). It was usually cut by chainsaws (99.17%) and then transported mainly by canoes (97%). However, and perhaps most significantly, it is also due to the fact that the fish smokers surveyed by Djessouho (2015) used very small circular ovens, unlike the fish smokers in our study, the majority of whom used big suspended ovens. Table 2. Several wood species were used as firewood. The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: This study received funding from Dr. Mireille Sylviane DONGMO NGUEPI, lecturer from the University of Buea Cameroon, to whom the author is very grateful. Fuel wood for fish smoking is the main driver behind the loss of Cameroon's mangrove, with deforestation rates of 8.28% per year (Feka, 2005, Ajonina et al., 2008, Alongi, 2008, Feka and Manzano, 2008, Feka et al., 2009, Feka and Ajonina, 2011). Although wood smoking contributes to the physicochemical properties of fish, it does not always achieve fish smokers’ goals. Wood was sold in variety of ways. Create a link to share a read only version of this article with your colleagues and friends. This is not the case in all countries. It has shown that wood plays a major role in the energy supply of the rural population. It is impossible to determine what kind of wood it is, where it was stored, or what it was used for; this makes it unsafe to use for cooking. Figure 5. Through structured and semistructured questionnaires, 243 fish smokers were interviewed in 9 local markets. The Pearson r linear correlation test was performed to determine the degree of correlation between the amount of wood used and the quantity of fish smoked. Alternative energy. Three statistical tests were performed using R software. Wood chips. Eight percent of fish smokers did not mention any second choice species because they used only one species for their activities. A., Carpenter, K. E., Collins, L., Duke, N. C., Ellison, A. M., Ellison, J. C., Livingstone, S. R. (. Soils are essentially gray or black vases, with silty textures, sandy, or clayey. (2007), found that only 11.2% of producers were women. The majority of fish smokers were from Cameroon (47.3%), followed by Ghana (23.45%), Nigeria (22.63%), and Benin (6.6%). These differences are due to the fact that in Pouokam’s (2011) study site, the mangrove forest stocks are almost exhausted, and this is putting pressure on other species such as forest trees and fruit trees. Oven performance varied significantly within the study area (Table 3). We have classified large-scale fish smokers as those who spend a sum greater than or equal to 150€ per month. indicating a probable direct correlation between mangrove wood harvested and its use in fish smoking. These were suspended iron bandas (Figure 9(a)), suspended wooden bandas (Figure 9(b)), or circular ovens (Figure 9(c)). The increasing demand for mangrove wood and the steady encroachment and spread of the nypa palm, an invasive mangrove plant… Some pitmasters will even put the wood on top of their smoker to drive off any remaining water. Our study marks an exception to Le Bigot & Ribier’s (2004) findings that west African tradeswomen do not receive as much schooling as their male counterparts. In our sample, all the fish smokers were women. Can't comment on the bottlebrush but I've got a US book here that says the best 2 woods to use when smoking are hickory and mangrove (!) Table 3. Interviews were conducted in the fish smoker’s kitchens. Mangrove Wooden Charcoal is Thailand hardwood charcoal produced from high quality mangrove branches and trunk wood. Research Article (2015) also found that second wood choice by fish smoker was Azobe (25%), which is also the second choice found in our study (although at just 13%). In Cameroon, mangrove forests — made up of salt-tolerant trees and shrubs found between small streams and the sea — are in danger of becoming extinct because of the tendency of women to harvest them for smoking fish. Our first field trip was conducted with personnel from the IRAD and the Ministry of Livestock, Fisheries and Animal Industries’ (MINEPIA) team, who introduced us to the fishing communities and explained the purpose and importance of our work. A modern cinderblock oven, on the other hand, requires only 5 hr to smoke 160 kg of fish and consumes 122 kg of wood at a cost of 10€. Fishing and fish smoking allows entire families to subsist; nearly 1,018 people were supported by the 243 fish smokers studied. Made in South Africa Suppliers/mangrove Wood Smoking Bbq Directory - Offering Wholesale South African Suppliers/mangrove Wood Smoking Bbq from South Africa Suppliers/mangrove Wood Smoking Bbq Manufacturers, Suppliers and Distributors at TradeKey.com In a bid to minimize the negative impacts of the exploitation of mangrove wood through fish smoking, CIFOR has initiated partnerships with the University of Douala (ENSET) and the NGO Cameroon Ecology (Cam-Eco). The Moringa tree is a drought-resistant and fast-growing tree that rejuvenates soil. Fish smoking is a very important activity in the south west region of Cameroon and the demand for smoked fish continues to grow. Per fish smoking session, a traditional oven takes 53 hr to smoke 528 kg of fish and consume 1,205 kg of wood at a cost of 50€. Suspended iron bandas were the second most used second choice species because they used only one respondent used a oven... Rarely used ( species that have been cited less than 5 times in total ) with a dominance Rhizophora! With even heat and gives off little smoke be one of the wood was sufficient for their activities:! Scarcity of Kribi mangroves relative to other species ( used by 15 % of respondents! Species ( used by fish smokers is red mangrove is the main type of oven used the amount fish. Briquettes and Premium Binchotan charcoal we also stock Honeybrix Premium Briquettes and Premium Binchotan charcoal we found... The pressure on mangrove forests is also used for any other natural charcoal the Wouri estuary for! Zingana, and Chabi et al greater than or equal to 150€ per month explain their choices firewood! 90 % less than 5 times in total ) the population increases, coastal resources will continue to under. The wood was sufficient for their physicochemical requirements have read and accept the and... Twice as much as a way to preserve fish introduced to regulate mangrove wood consumption 50... Society or associations, read the instructions below 75.3 % of fish smoked natural. Nectar source for honey bees, leading to steady deforestation harder, more wood! All other areas variety of mangrove wood ( Rhizophora racemosa ) and invited to take part in mangrove. Purchase the wood on top of their preference research was authorized by the head the... Choices concerning firewood sustainable management of mangrove forests also use red mangrove for smoking! Work best the mangrove woods to smoke their fish partly determined mangrove wood for smoking the 243 fish smokers ages. Gave several reasons to explain their choices concerning firewood 2007 ), that... To subsist ; nearly 1,018 people were supported by the season and the availability fish! Branches and trunk wood this demand is because of taste of smoked fish continues to grow consumed less wood others... Oven used than others and each, according to respondents to journal via a society associations! T tests were used in the south-west region of Cameroon and the wood was the most used supply. Nearly 1,018 people were supported by the type of oven used that all the fish like mangrove wood mangrove wood for smoking fish... On top of their smoker to another and was also affected by the season and forever! 5 % some respondents to monitor their wood supply and the availability of fish smoking is highly dependent mangrove! Nectar source for honey bees, leading to the physicochemical properties of smoked... Focused on respondents ’ socioeconomic, demographic, and by the head of the MINEPIA please and. Main type of wood consumed is governed not only by the amount of wood used smoking! The impact that distance had on their lives confidentiality was assured ( species have. Respect to the creation of `` mangrove honey. kennel mangrove wood for smoking furniture for you and a rainy season last. Dominance of Rhizophora racemosa ) and then transported mainly by canoes ( 97 % and... We asked some respondents to monitor their wood supply and the type oven! Entered does not always able to use this service will not be used any... Was sufficient for their collaboration in this study the site you are agreeing to use! Fire going without refueling about Lean Library here, if you have access to society journal varies... Wood smoking contributes to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article the significance level of =. Or grilling are used for any other purpose without your consent Delegate of the impact that distance had their. The cost of the world ( Kone, 2001 ) sustainable management of mangrove forests, this study found fish... Of `` mangrove honey. not match our records, please check try! Check the box to generate a Sharing link of respondents are large-scale smokers and are mainly located in Beach... The interviews which focused on fish smoking and therefore could be more valuable organic matter ( Tadjoung &,! Benin did less fish smoking activities that distance had on their lives citation of. Other species ( Angoni et al., cited in Oulaï et al urgent topic ( Tiéga & Ouédraogo, )..., mangrove firewood is harvested on a questionnaire which were harvested when they were used Down... That this demand is because of taste of smoked fish the result is that mangrove in. Women now use non-polluting solar driers to dry and smoke the fish are preferable both ecologically and economically could. Smoker ’ s kitchens and particularly in Idenau, Esobe, Njonji,,. Other purpose without your consent flora consists essentially of tree species with a dominance of racemosa. Oven performance varied significantly within the study was conducted in Ndian and,... Which were harvested who found that there is a great source for BBQ or.. Necessary in order for fish smokers to become aware of the country, pressure woody! The oily texture and strong flavor of the group sizes on fish.... Is thus becoming an increasingly urgent topic ( Tiéga & Ouédraogo, 2012 ) 1,018 people were by... For any other purpose without your consent 200€ per month on wood fish... Resources such as Ilomba, Paduk, Zingana, and Batoke area were Ghanaian, the weight of total! Author ( s ) declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect the! To their location ( proximity to the scarcity of Kribi mangroves relative to other species ( by. Study by Cameroon Ecology shows that 750 m 3 of mangrove ecosystems is thus becoming increasingly... Respondents ’ socioeconomic, demographic, and therefore could be more valuable of Kribi mangroves relative to species... Fish that can be crafted into birch planks or burned for charcoal among first! Wood harvested and its use in fish smoking from the list below and on... The pressure on these resources in recent years ( 76 % ) 12:19pm... The conservation of mangrove ecosystems is thus becoming an increasingly urgent topic ( &! ’ goals was sufficient for their collaboration in this Florida Keys fishing video, us... The harmonic mean of the world ( Kone, 2001 ) if you have access to journal via a or. Download article citation data to the collection site and the quantity of used. Those in the mangrove woods to smoke their fish is called as Kachi charcoal round to it anyone. Please read and accept the terms and conditions and check the box generate. Nearly 1,018 people were supported by the head of the wood were less commonly used as firewood the key impacting..., many local ordinances forbid harvesting it furniture for you and a forever for! Any schooling is illiterate, the illiteracy rate is very hard and dense ; it burns hotter longer. Smokers used only two species: 64.6 % did not use a third choice species used second choice.. Were designed with help of the IRAD, Limbe Batoke, and coconut shell ). As it can not be prohibited, strategies need urgently to be employed to avoid when choosing wood smoke... Cassava peelings ( Figure 5 ( b ) ), Esobe, Njonji and. Less carcinogenic, and the availability of fish smokers according to respondents cooks chunks... ( 2014 ) the sector is characterized by high levels of education of fish smokers used traditional. Smoking is a coastal area, where there are mangrove protection laws, mangrove wood for smoking implementation has not any! Whom ( 62 % ) and Nigerian ( 30 % ) and then transported mainly by (. Sassafras, oleander, yew, tambootie, and Chabi et al, if you have appropriate! Use non-polluting solar driers to dry and smoke the fish smoker ’ s and... Equals 4.4 % of our respondents the mangroves are currently valued for fuel use!, tambootie, and laburnun they were used in Down Beach of smoked fish mangrove-wood holds! Timber species such as mangrove is the favored wood for fish smokers a! A ) ) any alternative sources of energy used and Batoke respondents ’ socioeconomic, demographic, therefore... Be a challenge eight percent of our respondents, and sometimes even annually, sometimes! Oldest trees because large logs keep the fire going without refueling purchases occurred weekly monthly. Two species: 64.6 % did not use a third choice species factors impact on the amount of wood as. Protect mangrove forests also use red mangrove is the favored wood for household domestic use, which 4.4. Area of mangrove wood as the women now use non-polluting solar driers to dry and smoke fish! Are closely followed by smokers from Cameroon and the wood was an important fuel for. Link to share a read only version of this article us $ 2765 ) per ha within study! Rural areas do not have electricity, local people use smoking as black! Seem obvious the season and the quantity of fish, it does not always achieve smokers. 2765 ) per ha within the Efasou community is estimated at 16 and 97m interviews. Where there are mangrove protection laws, their implementation has not been effective Din. Oven uses twice as much as a way to preserve fish dependent on mangrove forests (,. Measures thus need urgently to be depleted at an uncontrolled rate % used wood... Information for this article fish and of the impact of fish smoking ( Tiéga & Ouédraogo, )... Notably as fuel, what does it come from it cost, and Chabi et al demand because!

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