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The monument is made of marble and features a bronze statue depicting god Eros, who was worshiped in ancient Thespiae. A. S. Evans T HE FINAL PROBLEM of Thermopylae has been neatly defined by How and Wells, HWhat was the purpose of Leonidas clinging to his position at Thermopylae when it had apparently become The Games were dedicated to Zeus and war was forbidden when they were held. The monument is immediately striking for its broken wing and missing head, which are all symbolic. The Thespians died by their own free will. However, the Thespians refused to leave and it was during the fighting of those final hours that Herodotus praised the Thespian warrior Dithyrambus, son of Harmatides, who it was noted, excelled in this decisive battle. Held pass at Thermopylae for 3 days with 300 Spartans and 700 Thespians against the Persian army. The main source for the battle of 480 is Herodotus, Histories, 7.201-233, which is offered … In the process, these valiant Greek warriors inflicted heavy casualties upon the Persian forces before succumbing to attrition. King Leonidas and the 300 Spartans have become synonymous with bravery and self-sacrifice, consequently, so should Demophilus and the 700 Thespians. Leonidas died well before the last Greek at Thermopylae and those still alive fought the Persians over his body, recouping it on several attacks. Thespian Monument at Thermopylae. Battle of Thermopylae : Story, Photos - Thespiae Thespiae (Greek Θεσπιαι, Thespiai) was an ancient Greek city in Boeotia. His father was the Diadromes (Greek: Διαδρομέας). The crescent in their shields is the emblem of the goddes Artemis (Latin: Diana). Read More. Download this stock image: Thermopylae, Greece. Demophilus or Demophilos (Greek: Δημόφιλος), according to Herodotus, was the commander of a contingent of 700 Thespians at the Battle of Thermopylae (480 BC). In addition to the Spartiates, several other Greek city-states sent troops to Thermopylae to defend against Xerxes' army. The "Final Problem" at Thermopylae Evans, J A S Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies; Winter 1964; 5, 4; ProQuest pg. So the Spartans also stayed of their own free will. Well, not quite. Thermopylae (Thermopiles) is world famous for the battle where 300 Spartans, led by King Leonidas, made their famous stand against the Persian invaders in August 480 BC. ('Or with your shield or on it') in their rear. The Spartans died at Thermopylae because they were not allowed to retreat. Unveiled in 1997, it depicts Eros, the oldest of the gods. Demophilus (Greek: Δημόφιλος Demophilos), according to Herodotus, was the commander of a contingent of 700 Thespians at the Battle of Thermopylae (480 BC). That atttitude was ingrained in their upbringing and character. It’s as though they created a tradition that would guarantee total destruction of the city in the future. 8.50). In addition, roughly 700 Thespians volunteered to stay and fight alongside the Spartans during their last stand. The Persian invasion was a delayed response to the defeat of the first Persian invasi… Xerxes had learned how high the price of victory would be, if he could pay it at all. In Memory of the 700 Thespians at Thermopylae, 8 Books for the Military History Undergrad, Book Review: Hannibal: A Hellenistic Life, Rethinking War Monuments, Ancient and Modern, Some estimates have this at the whole fighting-age male population. Foto of The 700 Thespians phalanx at the Thermopylae battle for Fans of Ancient Greece. Great post about a rarely mentioned detail of the battle of Thermopylae. Thermopylae translated to English means 'hot gates' which is related to the nearby hot sulphur springs. Did you mean to say thaey represented all the Thespians sent to Thermopylae? Leonidas at Thermopylae' (1814). They managed to hold their own against the Persian forces for three days, despite being extremely outnumbered, before they were overtaken; Leonidas ended up releasing the majority of his army to defend other parts of Greece, leaving only 300 Spartans, 700 Thespians, and 400 Thebans to stay at the pass of Thermopylae. With such recognized bravery and sacrifice, Herodotus makes no mention of a monument for the Thespians at Thermopylae. Held pass at Thermopylae for 3 days with 300 Spartans and 700 Thespians against the Persian army. Xerxes, and his army, could now march through Greece and - presumably - defeat all the city-states. The Battle of Thermopylae was fought between an alliance of Greek city-states, led by King Leonidas I of Sparta, and the Achaemenid Empire of Xerxes I. Victor Davis Hanson, “Hoplite Obliteration: The Case of the Town of Thespiae,” in. However, 700 Thespians stood along side the Spartans and also met their deaths in that hopeless situation at Thermopylae in 480 B.C. This band of warriors were led by Demophilus, the son of Diadromes. I’ve been collecting theories on what Leonidas was trying to accomplish at Thermopylae. Whose numskull courage is a kind of fear, A fear of thought and of the oafish mothers. Copyright © 2020 Scott Manning. I am not terribly familiar with the other battle you mentioned other than that it exists. The battle took place simultaneously with the naval battle at Artemisium. We do know that at least two Spartans had left the battlefield for different reasons (7.229-232). Battle of Thermopylae: Triumph and Tragedy By Patricia DePalma Over 100,000 Persian warriors stand ready at the western end of Thermopylae, but King Leonidas and his Greek warriors are not the slightest bit intimidated by their chances. The honours that the people give always. Afterall they represented the entire hoplite population of their city. Ancient Greek History The Top 10 ancient Greek philosophers. This website is dedicated to King Leonidas, the 300 Spartans, 700 Thespians and other Greek warriors who fought to the death during the Battle of Thermopylae (Hot Gates) in August, 480 B.C. The Thespians came from the ancient Greek city of Thespiae, in Boeotia. The Thespians held Eros above all other gods, likely because he had no parents. The Romans knew him as Cupid. The honours that the people give always Pass to those use-besotted gentlemen Whose numskull courage is a kind of fear, A fear of thought and of the oafish mothers (‘Or with you shield or on it’) in their rear. He is most well known for bravely leading a small force of Greeks, including the famous 300 Spartans, along with a few hundred Thespians and Thebans against the much larger Persian army of Xerxes, at the pass of Thermopylae in 480 B.C. Ancient Greeks, Spartans or not, always faught their battles in places where the enemy had few chances to facilitate their numbers or cavarly. Leonidas dismissed his roughly 5,000 Greek allies to retreat except for the 400 Thebans who he believed were sympathetic to the Persians (they were). Even more, 700 Thespians were all the fighting force of their hometown (later destroyed by the Persians), they were mostly peasants and artisants, they would not be disgraced by retreating, and they had not a prophesy to weigh on them. 2 min read . Spartans cannot retreat. Therefore, the Thespians should be held with the highest esteem as the Spartan fallen. For the Thespians, Thermopylae was devastating to their city-state Thespiae where 700 hoplites represented at least one-third of the fighting-age male population.1. Off to the side of the larger statue of Leonidas at Thermopylae, there is a monument to the 700 Thespians who died alongside the Spartans. For this action, the city of Thespiae received the same fate as the city of Athens by being burned to the ground by the invading Persian army. Die Thermopylen (altgriechisch Θερμοπύλαι Thermopylai, lateinisch Thermopylae) waren eine Engstelle zwischen dem Meer und dem Kallidromosgebirge in Mittelgriechenland (auch Trachinische Felsen) mit hohem strategischem Wert in der Antike, da sie den einzigen Weg von der Küste am Malischen Golf nach Innergriechenland darstellen. Medievalism, Classical Reception, Battlefields, and Cigars. during the Persian Wars. Pingback:Rethinking Monuments, Ancient and Modern, May be apocryphal, as it would be uncertain who would have witnessed this, but it was said that Spartans exchanged their distinctive red cloaks with those of as many of the Thespians as they could. His commanders had warned him that great risks were involved: in 490, at Marathon, about 10,000 Athenians had defeated 25,000 Persians. The tragedy for the town didn’t stop there, as the Persians razed it to the ground after the Thebans convinced the Persians that Thespiae would never join their cause (Hdt. Much to their surprise, they faced approximately 6,000 ho… While the Thespian contribution to Thermopylae has not been totally overlooked, it has been minimized because of the overwhelming Spartan superiority as described above. Leonidas and his followers all died. an || 'θespɪən n. dramatic actor (after Thespis, father of Greek tragedy) adj. Herodotus tells us that after two days of fighting, Leonidas learned that the Persians were aware of a goat path that led to his army’s rear (7.222). picture of the monument in memory of the 700 Thespian fallen in the battle of Thermopylae . The Thespians also worshipped the Muses, and celebrated a festival in their honor in the sacred grove on Mount Helicon. 231 The "Final Problem" at Thermopylae J. The belief that the Spartans were not allowed to retreat is somehow false as in many other battles they left the battlefield in search of a more opportune place to fight. Probably not. If, by the third day, there were no casualties among the Spartans, Thebans, and Thespians, then Leonidas’s last stand was with an army just shy of 1,400, not 300. It is more than obvious that the Athenians (and also Thespians and eventually Plataeans) were very anxious about the outcomes of the battles at Thermopylae and Artemisson. Some 200 years later, a few thousand Greeks, mostly Aitolians, fought against approximately 200,000 Celts at the same place. Forces before succumbing to attrition of self-denial and selflessness, and so it stayed in History 'Or with shield. Read several articles about a rarely mentioned detail of the gods battle at Artemisium makes no mention of a for... 700 may have been only some portion of their city hoplite population of their city ``. 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