2004). PeerJ 3:e1170, Knowlton N (1993) Sibling species in the sea. Article Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 272:573–579, Ronquist F, Huelsenbeck JP (2003) MRBAYES 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models. To our knowledge, the intertwined evolutionary history of tropical Atlantic and Indo-Pacific taxa we found for giant barrel sponges has never been found in other benthic reef animals. That group, the phylum Porifera, represents the 8,755 valid species of sponge, most all of which are marine. 2016). 2016). This is comparable to corals of the Montastrea annularis species complex (van Veghel et al. Box 94248, 1090 GE, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Katja T. C. A. Peijnenburg, Christiaan A. de Leeuw & Johannes A. J. Breeuwer, Marine Animal Ecology, Wageningen UR, P.O. Colors indicate regions of origin.
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An evidence describes the source of an annotation, e.g. 2010), and are widespread in many aquatic systems. BMC Evol Biol 11:176, van Soest RWM (1980) Marine sponges from Curaçao and other Caribbean localities. Primer sequences were trimmed of the final sequences, and alignments were obtained using ClustalW (Larkin et al. Three species have been described, with the species delineation mainly based on geographic distributions. We obtained a total of 395 combined sequences of partial mitochondrial CO1 and ATP6 genes. In contrast, the giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta, showed evidence of limited larval exchange or connection between Pulley Ridge and the Dry Tortugas and no connectivity with the Florida Keys. Giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta. Mol Biol Evol 2016:msw054, Larkin MA, Blackshields G, Brown NP, Chenna R, McGettigan PA, McWilliam H, Valentin F, Wallace IM, Wilm A, López R, Thompson JD, Gibson TJ, Higgins DG (2007) ClustalW and ClustalX version 2. Both groups show congruent patterns in the sense that they both host unique mtDNA haplotypes and unique nDNA alleles and are closely related to each other for both markers. For instance, individuals from groups 3 and 9 can share the same mtDNA haplotype and are also closely related in the nuclear gene tree, but are found in the Indo-Pacific and tropical Atlantic, respectively. Animal Nature 12. It is common at depths greater than 10 metres (33 ft) down to 120 metres (390 ft) and can reach a diameter of 1.8 metres (6 feet). 2013). Giant Barrel Sponge. Giant specimens may reach a diameter of up to 2 meters. 2010). 2005), mitochondrial variation was low (π = 0.0032). Help. 2). PubMed Google Scholar. You are using a version of browser that may not display all the features of this website. Also in the tropical Atlantic, McMurray et al. Brittle and crumbly in consistency. Google Scholar, Teske PR, Rius M, McQuaid CD, Styan CA, Piggott MP, Benhissoune S, Fuentes-Grünewald C, Walls K, Page M, Attard CRM, Cooke GM, McClusky CF, Banks SC, Barker NP, Cooke GM (2011) “Nested” cryptic diversity in a widespread marine ecosystem engineer: a challenge for detecting biological invasions. DNA was extracted from sponge tissue using the DNeasy Blood and Tissue kit (Qiagen) following the manufacturer’s instructions. The importance of geographic isolation, possibly related to sea currents, was suggested as a driving force in sponge speciation (DeBiasse et al. 2013). Haplotype network of the mitochondrial DNA genes CO1 and ATP6 of giant barrel sponges. The class is Demospongiae. 2010; Teske et al. We conducted an automated barcoding gap discovery (ABGD) analysis with standard settings to split our sequences into candidate species and compare those to our identified groups based on congruence between mtDNA, nDNA and geography (Puillandre et al. Joseph Henry Press, Washington, USA, pp 83–108, Reece JS, Bowen BW, Larson A (2011) Long larval duration in moray eels (Muraenidae) ensures ocean-wide connectivity despite differences in adult niche breadth. For instance, sponges with haplotype C5 for the CO1 gene are associated with a digitate outer morphology in both the tropical Atlantic and the Indo-Pacific (López-Legentil and Pawlik 2009; Swierts et al. Giant kelp grows faster than bamboo. Sponges (Porifera) are an animal group with a relatively simple morphology and often pronounced morphological plasticity (Knowlton 2000). The number of bootstrap replications was set at 1000. 3) but most closely related to group 3 in the haplotype network for the mtDNA (Fig. Mar Biol 141:377–386, Fromont J, Bergquist PR (1994) Reproductive biology of three sponge species of the genus Xestospongia (Porifera: Demospongiae: Petrosida) from the Great Barrier Reef. General Organisation 7. At present, giant barrel sponges occur in the western Indo-Pacific (including the Red Sea and western Indian Ocean), the central Indo-Pacific and the tropical Atlantic. Nevertheless, our data do indicate that the current taxonomic consensus with X. muta occurring in the tropical Atlantic and X. testudinaria in the Red Sea, western Indian Ocean and central Indo-Pacific, is incorrect. Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 21:1113–1120, Nagelkerken I, Aerts L, Pors L (2000) Barrel sponge bows out. Orange Sieve Encrusting Sponge. Taken together, these factors were believed to lead to fewer opportunities for allopatric speciation compared to terrestrial ecosystems (Palumbi 1997; Rocha and Bowen 2008). 2001). Giant barrel sponges (Xestospongia spp.) It may also be a driving force for giant barrel sponges, especially considering the groups that are confined to the Red Sea and the western Indian Ocean, which represent distinct biogeographic provinces (Briggs and Bowen 2012; Bowen et al. 2016) using the Tamura–Nei model (Tamura and Nei 1993) with standard settings. with Europe’s new General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) that applies since 25 May 2018. In the tropical Atlantic, X. muta has been observed to spawn and recruit twice a year, in spring and in late summer (Ritson-Williams et al. Google Scholar, Boury-Esnault N, Solé-Cava AM, Thorpe JP (1992) Genetic and cytological divergence between colour morphs of the Mediterranean sponge Oscarella lobularis Schmidt (Porifera, Demospongiae, Oscarellidae). Mol Ecol 19:4678–4694. It is, therefore, important to study and quantify the diversity of these systems and understand the evolutionary processes that have led to this diversity. Unfortunately, this large and important animal group has long been understudied in coral reef ecology (Diaz and Rützler 2001). Usually, there is a general conformity between phylogeography and biogeography in marine animal groups, which suggests that geographic isolation is a starting point for divergences between species (Teske et al. 2000). Bull Mar Sci 58:792–803, Vermeij GJ (2001) Community assembly in the sea: geologic history of the living shore biota. (2013), but amplification and sequencing were repeated in this study to confirm haplotype assignment. General Characters 5. Previously, the closure of the Isthmus of Panama, approximately 3 million yr ago (Keigwin 1978, was suggested as the final geographic separation between giant barrel sponges from the tropical Atlantic and the Indo-Pacific (Montalvo and Hill 2011; Swierts et al. 2001). Based on these criteria, the individuals from the central Indo-Pacific could be separated into three groups: group 1—haplotypes C1A1, C1A8 and C2A1; group 2—haplotypes C4A3 and C4A4; and group 3—haplotypes C5A2, C5A4 and C6A2. However, since giant barrel sponges do not occur east of New Caledonia, the scenario in which the tropical Atlantic and the Indo-Pacific locations became isolated due to the TTE should also be considered. Amplification was performed in a 25 µL total reaction volume with 14.55 µL sterile water, 4.2 Ll dNTPs (2.5 mM), 2.6 µL buffer (Qiagen), 1.6 Ll BSA (Promega) 0.4 µL of each primer (10 µM), 0.25 µL taq polymerase (Qiagen) and 1 µL DNA template (20 ng µL−1). Mar Biol 155:159–171, McMurray SE, Henkel TP, Pawlik JR (2010) Demographics of increasing populations of the giant barrel sponge Xestospongia muta in the Florida Keys. The Tethys Seaway may have provided a potential migration route throughout the first half of the Cenozoic era between 60 and 30 million yr ago between the tropical Atlantic and the Indo-Pacific (Vermeij 2001; Harzhauser and Piller 2007). 2014). Barrel shaped, with thick walls. 2010) with the GTR model, which was the best fit model according to jModelTest2 (Guindon and Gascuel 2003; Darriba et al. Coral Reefs 16:S47–S52, Pandolfi JM, Jackson JBXC, Baron N, Bradbury RH (2005) Are US coral reefs on the slippery slope to slime? 2011; Bowen et al. 1. Taxonomy - Giant Barrel Sponge. Giant Barrel Sponge has shades of gray color, brown, red brown or rose purple color. Science 265:1547–1551, Jarman SN, Ward RD, Elliott NG (2002) Oligonucleotide primers for PCR amplification of coelomate introns. SE = Sint-Eustatius, the Netherlands; Cur = Santa Barbara, Curaçao; Sau = Jeddah, Saudi-Arabia; Tan = Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; May = Mayotte, France; Pat = Pattaya, Thailand; PQ = Phu Quoc, Vietnam; Koh = Koh Tao, Thailand; Tio = Tioman Island, Malaysia; Sin = St. John’s Island, Singapore, Jak = Jakarta Bay and Thousand Islands, Indonesia; Phu = Phuket, Thailand; Tai = Taiwan; HB = Halong Bay, Vietnam; Der = Derawan Islands, Indonesia; Lem = Lembeh Island, Indonesia; Spe = Spermonde Archipelago, Indonesia. Also, the inconsistencies of the placement of certain groups relative to other groups illustrate that the phylogenetic relationships between the groups cannot be completely resolved with the combination of markers used in this study. Lines connecting haplotypes represent one base substitution between two haplotypes; additional crossbars indicate an additional base substitution each. 2013; Setiawan et al. Only reconstructed haplotypes with probabilities >0.9 were used for further analysis. Spawning events of giant barrel sponges have also been reported at different times of the year in the Indo-Pacific (Swierts et al. The giant barrel sponge has been called the "redwoodof the reef" because of its size and estimated lifespan of hundreds to a thousand or more years. Mol Phylogenet Evol 40:292–297, Erpenbeck D, Breeuwer JAJ, van der Velde H, van Soest R (2002) Unravelling host and symbiont phylogenies of halichondrid sponges (Demospongiae, Porifera) using a mitochondrial marker. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. 2011). 2016). Coral Reefs 24:160, Robinson JP, White ER, Wiwchar LD, Claar DC, Suraci JP, Baum JK (2014) The limitations of diversity metrics in directing global marine conservation. A maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree was constructed for the ATPsß-intron in Geneious using the PHYML plugin (Guindon et al. 1). 2013; Bell et al. These specimens may be over 100 years old, as the sponges grow only about 1.5 cm a year. The first aim of this study was to assess how many species of giant barrel sponge are present globally and how they are distributed. We successfully amplified the nuclear intron ATPsß from 211 individuals. Giant barrel sponges, Xestospongia spp., are a source of many new compounds and are found in a broad geographical range. The encrusting sponge Tedania digitata (left), the branching sponge Axinella cannabina (center), and the giant barrel sponge Xestospongia testudinaria (right) are shown. Aitchison JC, Ali JR, Davis AM (2007) When and where did India and Asia collide? In this study, we used molecular techniques to study populations of giant barrel sponges across the globe and assessed whether the genetic structure of these populations agreed with current taxonomic consensus or, in contrast, whether there was evidence of cryptic species. (2002). Appl Environ Microbiol 77:7207–7216, Morariu VI, Srinivasan BV, Raykar VC, Duraiswami R, Davis LS (2009) Automatic online tuning for fast Gaussian summation. 2007) in Geneious v9.04 (Kearse et al. It’s habitat is on mid range to deep coral … Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material. It grows at depths from 10 meters down to 120 metres (390 ft), and can reach a diameter of 1.8 metres (6 feet). Ecology 91:560–570, McMurray S, Pawlik J, Finelli C (2014) Trait-mediated ecosystem impacts: how morphology and size affect pumping rates of the Caribbean giant barrel sponge. Swierts, T., Peijnenburg, K.T.C.A., de Leeuw, C.A. Giant barrel sponges are large and long-lived and have therefore been nicknamed ‘the redwoods of the reef’ (McMurray et al. However, this is inconsistent with the high biodiversity found in coral reefs, which rivals numbers found in tropical rainforests (Reaka-Kudla et al. particular, giant barrel sponges, which belong to the genus Xestospongia , have drawn the attention of the scienti ﬁ c community due to their pharmacological activities and their 2013) due to the combined threat of climate change and anthropogenic stressors including pollution and overfishing (Hughes 1994; Pandolfi et al. 2009; Maloof et al. S1). The third objective is to investigate the importance of photosymbionts in the chemical defense and bleaching of the giant barrel sponge Xestospongia muta. Molecular studies on giant barrel sponges using these mtDNA and nDNA markers have revealed some interesting results. Sponges exist in a rainbow of hues and can, in the case of the Caribbean giant barrel sponge, grow up to eight feet in diameter. We also calculated Bayesian support values with MrBayes 3.2.6 (Huelsenbeck and Ronquist 2001; Ronquist and Huelsenbeck 2003). 2013). This suggests that distinct species of giant barrel sponges must have existed prior to the most recent physical separation of the tropical Atlantic and the Indo-Pacific. It can also have several different shaped openings. Amplification was performed in a 25 µL total reaction volume with 15.5 µL sterile water, 5 µL dNTPs (2.5 mM), 2.5 µL coralload buffer (Qiagen), 0.4 µL of each primer (10 µM), 0.25 µL taq polymerase (Qiagen) and 1 µL DNA template (20 ng µL−1). High-Veined Encrusting Sponge. 2016) were present in this dataset. PubMed Box 9517, 2300 RA, Leiden, The Netherlands, Thomas Swierts, Katja T. C. A. Peijnenburg, Christiaan A. de Leeuw & Nicole J. de Voogd, Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED), P.O. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 96:323–332, Stephens M, Smith N, Donnelly P (2001) A new statistical method for haplotype reconstruction from population data. Note that not all groups are monophyletic in the nDNA tree. with the base broader than the top. 2014). 2007), dividing the Tethys realm into a western and an eastern part: the ‘Terminal Tethyan Event’ (TTE). Mol Phylogenet Evol 49:629–638, Huelsenbeck JP, Ronquist F (2001) MRBAYES: Bayesian inference of phylogeny. Giant barrel sponges are large and long-lived and have therefore been nicknamed ‘the redwoods of the reef’ (McMurray et al. Caribbean Journal of Science 29:75–88, Zhan A, Macisaac HJ, Cristescu ME (2010) Invasion genetics of the Ciona intestinalis species complex: from regional endemism to global homogeneity. A recently published demographic study of the giant barrel sponge on the Florida Keys reefs showed population increases by ~40% between 2000 and 2006. Nat Clim Chang 3:528–530, Briggs JC, Bowen BW (2012) A realignment of marine biogeographic provinces with particular reference to fish distributions. If isolation followed the TTE, the lineages now living in sympatry must have evolved into different species before the TTE occurred. 2005). Congruent patterns between mitochondrial and nuclear gene trees of giant barrel sponges provided evidence for the existence of multiple reproductively isolated species, particularly where they occurred in sympatry. Sea otters wrap themselves in giant kelp to keep from floating away while sleeping. Our second aim was to test whether the giant barrel sponges in the tropical Atlantic and the Indo-Pacific represent two monophyletic lineages. The statistical parsimony network constructed with TCS from our nuclear data resulted in seven unconnected statistical parsimony networks. Video : Yucatania sphaeroidocladus: The order is Haplosclerida. The lack of hybridization between these taxa, especially between those that are sympatric, indicates complete reproductive isolation. Seven of the nine CO1-haplotypes (C1–C9) previously submitted to GenBank (López-Legentil and Pawlik 2009; Swierts et al. 2010). All sequences were submitted to GenBank under accession numbers KY381293–KY381577. Front Zool 7:16, Palumbi SR (1997) Molecular biogeography of the Pacific. SPONGE SPECIES. Genetic markers have become increasingly important tools to identify divergent cryptic species and have forced the rejection of the long-believed assumption of cosmopolitan distribution of certain species (Boury-Esnault et al. Aquat Biol 23:1–13, Montalvo NF, Hill RT (2011) Sponge-associated bacteria are strictly maintained in two closely related but geographically distant sponge hosts. Galaxea 18:1–2, Rua CP, Zilberberg C, Solé-Cava AM (2011) New polymorphic mitochondrial markers for sponge phylogeography. PubMed To test for congruent patterns at an independent genetic locus, the ATPsβ nuclear intron was amplified for a subset of 211 samples following Jarman et al. 415). Values on branches indicate bootstrap support (only shown when >50) and Bayesian support value (only shown when >0.90). All of the following sponges are found within the coral cap region of the sanctuary (0-130 ft, 0-40m deep). 2013) illustrate the evolutionary potential of tropical marine environments. That is longer than you can live! J Org Chem 56:63–66, CAS An ABGD analysis on our nuclear data supported the groups 2, 3, 4, 5, 8 and 9 with recursive partitions at a prior maximal distance of 0.0046, while groups 1, 6 and 7 were not supported as separate groups (ESM S2). Bell, Growth and longevity in giant barrel sponges: Redwoods of the reef or Pines in the Indo-Pacific?, Scientific Reports, 10.1038/s41598-018-33294-1, 8, 1, (2018). If this is the case, it would suggest that one species of giant barrel sponge in each ocean basin independently developed into different species and/or species complexes. Xestospongia muta occurs in the tropical Atlantic, X. testudinaria in the Indo-Pacific from the Red Sea to Taiwan and X. bergquistia is thought to be confined to inshore environments in northern Australia where it lives in sympatry with X. testudinaria. This has important implications for a number of published studies on the demography and population genetics of giant barrel sponges which assumed a single population of giant barrel sponge (López-Legentil and Pawlik 2009; McMurray et al. For the CO1 gene, we used the primers C1-J2165 (5′-GAAGTTTATATTTTAATTTTACCDGG-3′) and C1-Npor2760 (5′-TCTAGGTAATCCAGCTAAACC-3′), which amplified a fragment of 544 base pairs (bp). Our data do not support any recent invasions of giant barrel sponges from one ocean basin to another and none of the candidate species has a global distribution. 6. Marine speciation does not fundamentally differ from terrestrial speciation, but ecological partitions among populations are believed to be more important in the former, whereas geographic partitions are more important in the latter (Bowen et al. In sponges, mitochondrial variation is typically low (Wörheide et al. an experiment that has been published in the scientific literature, an orthologous protein, a record from another database, etc.Emily C. McGrath, Lisa Woods, Jamaluddin Jompa, Abdul Haris, James J. Abbreviations in the legend of the background colors indicate the current species consensus (XT, Xestospongia testudinaria; XM, Xestospongia muta). Globally intertwined evolutionary history of giant barrel sponges. were collected by SCUBA diving from 17 different locations (Table 1; Fig. Also, heterozygotes were only found with both alleles within the same nuclear group providing further support that different groups are reproductively isolated (ESM Fig. (0 photos) Cake-like Sponges (7 photos) Coral Reefs 36, 933–945 (2017). Location maps with haplotype frequencies of the mitochondrial DNA genes CO1 and ATP6 of giant barrel sponges. 1999). Xestospongia muta. Affinities 13. A case study using the marine sponge Chondrilla nucula. Similarly, large geographic ranges can be observed for groups 1, 2 and 3 from the central Indo-Pacific, which have overlapping geographic ranges between locations more than 2000 km apart. Xestospongia muta. All of them share the same basic body plan: a … Also, some groups are only partly congruent, for example groups 4 and 5. 2008 ). Dr. M May 8, 2014 Barrel Sponge giant largest record holder It is probably this 2.5 meter (8.2 feet) diameter giant that was a tourist attraction for scuba divers visiting Curaçao in … The giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta is an iconic and essential species of the coral reefs in South Florida. J Biogeogr 39:12–30, Briggs JC, Bowen BW (2013) Marine shelf habitat: biogeography and evolution. Economic Importance. 2013). (Schmidt, 1870) Description: Persistently a cup- or barrel-shaped sponge with a rough, often jagged, stone-hard exterior. 2013). Annu Rev Ecol Syst 24:189–216, Knowlton N (2000) Molecular genetic analyses of species boundaries in the sea. Certain other groups were statistically supported, which is, particularly in combination with their sympatric occurrence, a strong indication for speciation. 2013) and six new haplotypes were identified (A4–A9; GenBank accession numbers: KY381287–KY381292). x; UniProtKB. Thomas Swierts. Instead, our results show a unique evolutionary history, suggesting intertwined species complexes in different ocean basins. Nature 457:718–721, Maloof AC, Rose CV, Beach R, Samuels BM, Calmet CC, Erwin DH, Poirier GR, Yao N, Simons FJ (2010) Possible animal-body fossils in pre-Marinoan limestones from South Australia. Geology 6:630–634, Kerr RG, Kerr SL, Djerassi C (1991) Biosynthetic studies of marine lipids. J Biogeogr 40:1023–1035, Clement M, Posada DCKA, Crandall KA (2000) TCS: a computer program to estimate gene genealogies. We compared a phylogenetic tree constructed from 285 alleles of the nuclear intron ATPsβ to the 17 mitochondrial haplotypes. Origin 4. Sequences were checked using CodonCode Aligner version 188.8.131.52 (CodonCode Corporation). 2002) and ATP6 genes (Rua et al. In the final alignment of 989 base pairs, we found 13 variable sites: six were located in the CO1 gene and seven in the ATP6 gene, resulting in 17 different haplotypes (Table 2). The species complexes in the tropical Atlantic and the Indo-Pacific, however, do not form separate monophyletic lineages. Evolution 55:1029–1039, CAS Background colors represent geographic origin of the lineages. Giant Barrel Sponge. Giant barrel sponges Xestospongiatestudinaria(Lamarck, 1813) and Xestospongiabergquistia(Fromont, 1991) in the Indo-Pacific and Xestospongiamuta(Schmidt, 1870) in the Caribbean, are among the largest known sponges (Demospongiae; Haplosclerida), measuring up to 2.4 meters in height and width. 2011). Rough Tube Sponge. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 437:269–277, Renema W, Bellwood DR, Braga JC, Bromfield K, Hall R, Johnson KG, Lunt P, Meyer CP, McMonagle LB, Morley RJ, O’Dea A, Todd JA, Wesselingh FP, Wilson MEJ, Pandolfi JM (2008) Hopping hotspots: global shifts in marine biodiversity. Most studies that have focused on the distribution and evolution of marine species cover small spatial scales and become more useful when they are compared to more wide-ranging studies (Briggs and Bowen 2013; Cowman and Bellwood 2013a). Red-Orange Encrusting Sponge. Of particular interest is the finding that lineages in a given ocean basin were more closely related to lineages in another ocean basin than to lineages with which they co-occur. Samples that contained many double peaks may have represented mixtures of multiple sequences and were therefore cloned using the pGEM-T Easy kit (Promega Corporation) or the TOPO-TA cloning kit (Thermo Fisher Scientific), following the manufacturers’ protocols. Giant barrel sponges (genus Xestospongia, family Petrosiidae, order Haplosclerida) are widely distributed throughout multiple tropical oceans. Coral Reefs These conspicuous sponges can measure up to a base diameter of more than 2.5 m (Nagelkerken et al. On tropical reefs, sponge diversity and abundance can be higher than that of corals (Diaz and Rützler 2001). All CO1 haplotypes of samples from the tropical Atlantic in this analysis were previously described by López-Legentil and Pawlik (2009) from locations in the north (Florida) and west (Belize) of the tropical Atlantic and by de Bakker et al. Reaching sizes of at least 6 feet (1.8 m) across, this is one of the largest sponge species wherever it lives. Surface with protuberances with round or blade-like outlines. Definition of Sponges 3. Bioinformatics 19:1572–1574, Röthing T, Voolstra CR (2016) Xestospongia testudinaria nighttime mass spawning observation in Indonesia. Google Scholar, Klautau M, Russo CA, Lazoski C, Boury-Esnault N, Thorpe JP, Solé-Cava AM (1999) Does cosmopolitanism result from overconservative systematics? Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, USA, McMurray SE, Blum JE, Pawlik JR (2008) Redwood of the reef: growth and age of the giant barrel sponge Xestospongia muta in the Florida Keys. Elucidation of the biosynthesis of mutasterol, a sponge sterol with a quaternary carbon in its side chain. 2011; Swierts et al. Domain: Eukaryota • Regnum: Animalia • Phylum: Porifera • Classis: Demospongiae • Ordo: Haplosclerida • Familia: Petrosiidae • Genus: Xestospongia • Species: Xestospongia muta giant barrel sponge Giant Barrel Sponge Roles In Enviroment Xestospongia muta is a filter feeder. 2013; Röthing and Voolstra 2016). The giant barrel sponge is a large sponge that lives on coral reefs around the Caribbean Sea and adjacent waters. Sympatric populations of X. testudinaria and X. bergquistia spawn at different times of the year near Australia, possibly triggered by water temperature (Fromont and Bergquist 1994). Coral Reefs 13:119–126, Geller JB, Darling JA, Carlton JT (2010) Genetic perspectives on marine biological invasions. Dots on the branches indicate the number of individuals with that allele, and the colors of the dots indicate the haplotype of the individual for the mitochondrial CO1 and ATP6 haplotypes. 1996) in the tropical Atlantic, which are unlikely to interbreed due to a combination of temporal differences in spawning, sperm aging, gamete dispersal and dilution, and gametic incompatibility (Levitan et al. This information provides insight into genetic divergence among tropical reefs before physical barriers impeded gene flow between the Indo-Pacific and tropical Atlantic. particular, giant barrel sponges, which belong to the genus Xestospongia, have drawn the attention of the scientiﬁc community due to their pharmacological activities and their role in ecosystems.19,20 In ecological systems, their large size allows them to play an essential role in the reef, providing
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