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For Christianity teaches that Truth is ordered to mercy. This rule requires benevolence toward others, in contrast with the so-called “Silver Rule” (“do unto others as they do unto you”), proposed by other sources, which only focus on reciprocity (Tullberg 2012). (2010). Dictionary of Christian spirituality. Here, after a long process of selection and revision, we are proud to introduce this special issue with a selection of papers presented at this conference. With these words, Pope Francis encourages us to strive for what is at the core of business ethics. The examination of these principles and their application to business could open up dialogue with other spiritual, religious, and philosophical traditions, which would constitute an interesting matter for research and even a way to contribute to a better understanding between civilizations. (2009). Using economic wealth as a means to higher human ends is not the only Christian principle for business. Spirituality in the academy. Alves, A. This limits our ability to enhance An exploration within the catholic social tradition. Capitalism, it is usually assumed, flowered around the same time as the Enlightenment–the eighteenth century–and, like the Enlightenment, entailed a diminution of organized religion. Christianity, is a form of religion based on the person and teachings , or its beliefs and practice 's".1 During 205-207B.C, Christianity evolved greatly throughout the world. John Paul II. Roman Empire. Actually, Christianity, as well as other religions, entails many ethical criteria for business and encourages virtues. THE IMPACT OF RELIGION ON BUSINESS ETHICS Yuriy Pertsev Mariya Shykhova Scientific supervisor: Shcherba A.V. Domènec Melé. Christianity #1 religion worldwide, practiced by about 33% of the world population The two primary Christian holidays are • Easter (date varies) • Christmas, set date, always December 25. Cornwall, J. R., & Naughton, M. J. 29, nos. (1931). Charles, R. (1998). The sanctification of work. A journey into the nature of legitimate power and greatness. Cessario, R. (2013). Worldwide, religion is one of the key factors in workplace cultural diversity. He argues that developing leadership is not a technical matter, rather such development is impossible without a personal process that develops the person’s capacity for perception, learning, internalization, explicit sense-making, and constructing meaning. An introduction. Some authors of this school actively worked on moral issues of business and finance, such as how to do business in accordance with Christian ethics. Christian faith and reason intertwine to bring about principles, criteria, and guidelines for action and a set of virtues with relevance for economic activity. If I have to save myself from the sinking ship in any way more than admitting that I'm sinking, then my salvation will be based on my own strength, and the hierarchies become inevitable. Home Science Math History Literature Technology Health Law Business All Topics Random. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. 84(Supl. Moreover, Christian ethics has had a practical influence on philosophers and even on ordinary people in many historical periods, opening new horizons to them. Others, more specifically, refer to the theory of the firm and the purpose of business (Naughton et al. Downers Grove, IL: IVP Academic. Christian Social Witness and Teaching: The Catholic Tradition from Genesis to ‘Centesiums annus’ (2 vols.). Nevertheless, and in spite of the work done, more research is necessary to develop the potentiality of Christian ethics and spirituality in business. Melé, D. (2012b). Just business: Christian ethics for the marketplace. Buy this book eBook 50,28 ... Usually ready to be dispatched within 3 to 5 business days, if in stock; The final prices may differ from the prices shown due to specifics of VAT rules; FAQ Policy. (Eds.). Not affiliated The Gospel emphasizes the idea of service in leading others. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press. Naughton, M. J. 45–73). The Four Major Religions Historically, religion, which is a systematic set … Let’s take a look at some of these here. The virtue of courage in entrepreneurship engaging the Catholic social tradition. ‎Christianity in Business is the show that helps Christian business leaders to integrate biblical values into business. Within Christian spirituality, there are many sub-spiritualities, which stress some determinate aspects. Lynn, M., Naughton, M., & VanderVeen, S. (2009). Handbook of workplace spirituality and organizational performance. Do they have meaningful, well-paid work that inspires them, or is it mind-numbing, low-paid drudgery? Jones, D. (1997). Journal of Business Ethics, 22, 175–189. Journal of Business Ethics, Jesus said: “whoever wishes to be the great come great among you must be your servant, and whoever wishes to be first among you must be your slave; just as the Son of Man came not to be served, but to serve” (Bible, Matthew 20:27–28). 3 Distinct Differences Between Knowledge And Experience by Chris Patton. One is undertaking comparative studies and a sincere dialogue between economic and Christian-based ethical perspectives, trying to overcome the radical separation between both approaches. Leading wisely in difficult times: Three cases of faith and business. (1981). The relevance of Christian ethics is clear if we consider that there are some 2 billion followers worldwide, although they may have different degrees of adherence and their interpretations vary on some points. It also believes that God entered into history in the person of Jesus of Nazareth to save humanity from the self-inflicted wounds of sin and to introduce a new era in which humanity would come to share God’s own life in mutual love, harmony and justice. Christian spirituality, with 2000 years of history, has been embedded in Christianity from its beginning, but the application to modern business activity is relatively recent. Christian spirituality and contemporary business leadership. Scholastic doctrine included morality on contracts, financial transaction, just price and market morality, and others (Chafuen 1986; Melé 1999, 2016; Azevedo Alves and Moreira 2010, 2013). Despite growing interest in examining the role of religion in business ethics, there is little consensus concerning the basis or standards of ''good'' or ethical behavior and the reasons behind them. In Christian ethics, the double commandment of love (agape, in Greek)–love to God and neighbor—and the imitation of Jesus’ love are central (Melé 2012a), but other virtues, principles and norms are also relevant Melé (2016). Aband… In G. P. Prastacos, F. Wang, & K. E. Soderquist (Eds. It recognizes that creation is fallen, but also recognizes God’s desire to restore creation by the death and resurrection of Christ, through the ministry of the church. Business can and should always do what is best for business including the application of a system of belifs that protects, fosters,grows, and elevates their portion of the market. This is due to an exaggerated focus of the mainstream theories on individual behavior and reactions motivated by material satisfaction, without considering that the person is able to act gratuitously on his or her own account, without regard to stimuli. Humanism in economics and business. Probably, both perspectives would benefit from this dialogue. According to these authors, in order to exhibit ethical leadership, it is beneficial to cultivate a personal spirituality (the moral manager) which provides philosophical, emotional, and spiritual sustenance to ethical leadership in practice, without which ethical leadership is more likely to succumb to situational pressures. Former professor of sociology Dr. Alvin Schmidt notes Elwood Cubberly’s observation that the biblical teachings of Jesus Christ challenged “almost everything for which the Roman world had stood” (How Christianity Changed the World, Schmidt, p. 44). Encyclical-letter ‘Centesimus annus’ on the socioeconomic order. Cambridge, UK/New York: Cambridge University Press. 23(4), 115–133. Among the exceptions, we can mention Delbecq (1999) and de Woot (2013). The biggest problem I have with Christianity is the sacrifice of all thought to a book and worse yet, whatever priest that happens to be at your church. Aquinas, T. (1981[1273]). They used both hermeneutic and ethical criteria to make this rule a way of life and treat it as a dynamic framework that helps them to follow their purpose within their organization. Response and impact. Scheiders, S. M. (1989). Christian churches, particularly the Roman Catholic Church, and individual scholars, have led the discussion around relevant moral issues connected to business ethics. Berlin: Mohr Siebeck. 44(1/2), 61–75. Available at www.vatican.va. Interviews with business leaders and studies of their biographies can provide role models beyond theoretical approaches. Nowadays, spirituality is generally defined independently of religion, although religion, and in particular the Christian religion, entails spirituality. As I considered an audience composed of seminarians and business persons, the closest biblical parallels were Nicodemus and the rich young ruler. Journal of Business Ethics New York, London: Continuum. Hill, A. D., & Downers Grove, I. (1989). Catechism of the Catholic Church (2003). 100, supl. (Ed.). Novak, M. (1998). volume 145, pages671–679(2017)Cite this article. Who is he you ask? 50(4), 676–697. Scholastic thought and business ethics: An overview. Herefordshire: Gracewind. Magill, G. (1992). It recognizes that creation is fallen, but also recognizes God’s desire to restore creation by the death and resurrection of Christ, through the ministry of the church. Tullberg, J. Sandelands asked himself why such admiration is expressed for POS when cannot be accounted for scientifically. Città del Vaticano: Libreria Editrice Vaticana. Journal of Religion and Business Ethics, 3(1), art. Booth, P. Journal of Business Ethics, 1. Christian spirituality in leading business has been developed to a lesser degree than Christian ethics and specific bibliography on Christian spirituality in business is still scarce. Naughton, M., & Cornwall, J. R. (2009). For this reason, he proposes an anthropological and non-denominational reading of some of the fundamental meditations found in the spiritual exercises of St. Ignatius, which can be used as a heuristic in the debate regarding what business schools propose. Journal of Business Ethics, Available at www.vatica.va. Melé, D. (2016). 2010; Abela 2014). Summa Theologiae. This double need led to the choice of Christian Ethics and Spirituality in Leading Organizations as the theme of the 4th International Colloquium on Christian Humanism in Economic and Business held by IESE Business School (Barcelona, April 20–21, 2015). Christian ethics applied to economics and business has a long tradition. Christian faith and reason intertwine to bring about principles, criteria, and guidelines for action and a set of virtues with relevance for economic activity. Heidelberg: Springer. 2. The Isoko people inhabit The common good and the purpose of the firm. Introduction to moral theology. 1-19). (1985). 2003; Demuijnck 2009; Naughton and Specht 2011). (Eds.). Encyclical-Letter ‘Caritas in veritate’. Dnepropetrovsk National University We live in age of innovation, growth of free markets, and world economy. 12(4), 345–354. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. The final four papers of this special issue are related to Christian spirituality in leading business organizations. One of the saddest facts today is that one often cannot tell a Christian-run business from a business ran by an unbeliever (1 Corinthians 15:58). Pius XI. Parris, D. L., & Peachey, J. W. (2013). The authors try to show how the pursuit of the common good of the firm can serve as a guide for humanistic management through two principles: first, community good is a condition for the realization of personal good; and second community good can only be promoted if it is oriented toward personal good. New York: Sharpe. 7, n. 2, 1997; Journal of Management Development vol. Melé, D. (2013). Christian ethics has been developed over 2000 years (Wogaman 1993) from the Bible (1966) and from several philosophical legacies (Pinckaers 1995), firstly with seminal thinkers (from the second to fourth centuries) and then with the exceptional figure of St. Augustin of Hippo in the fifth century. Available at www.vatican.va. An open letter to Christian leaders in times of urgency. I Thessalonians 5:16-19 NIV Be joyful always; pray continually; give thanks in all circumstances; this … They argue that “gratuitous giving” is not only a normative matter. McCann, D. (2011). And the first word of Christianity in this respect is: "Fear not. (2011). Modernism, Christianity, and business ethics: A worldview perspective. . Therefore, further developments should stimulate discussions in business and universities on how to contribute to a more complete formation of managers and future managers, educating them to be effective business leaders with high principles. As Pope John Paul II wrote, “the word of God leaves philosophy enriched, because reason discovers new and unsuspected horizons” (John Paul II 1998, n. 73). A careful study of the religious background of the Nnewi people will show that Christianity has found its way into both the urban and rural areas of the Nnewi society. This gives to every human individual (person) a great dignity and serves as a good foundation for universal human rights. Available at www.vatican.va. A., & Moore, C. W. (2004). The concept of cloud computing is immensely popular among businesses owing to the efficiency in business operations that it provides. The church’s teaching. Most view their work as a necessary evil instead of a source of joy and an opportunity for impact. Journal of Business Ethics, (2001). Schmidt, says this about the profound impact Christianity has had on the development of Western Civilization: “No other religion, philosophy, teaching, nation, movement—whatever—has so changed the world for the better as Christianity has done. Editors: Breen, John, Williams, Mark (Eds.) They shed light on the essential duties, and so indirectly on the fundamental rights, inherent in the nature of the human person” (Catechism of the Catholic Church 2003, n. 2070). Some based their teaching 's on pure science and questioned every living thing as a question to an unsolved experiment. Asked by Wiki User. (2012). Greenleaf, R. K. (1970). Over time, a number of Christian thinkers have made significant contributions on ethics in business centuries before the current movement of business ethics, particularly from the thirteenth century (Melé 2013; Schlag 2013). 94, a. If God has called you into business, please don’t wish you were called somewhere else. 5; Illanes 2003) with implications for business. Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press. 1. Christianity. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Continue reading » | | Category: Business Practices. Integration in Christian ethical decision-making. Journal of Business Ethics, Journal of Business Ethics, 7(2), 149–150. These words promoted throughout the ages by Jesus’ followers are at the root of the concept of “servant leadership,” introduced by Robert Greenleaf (1970) and now a recognized theory of leadership. 2009). Journal of Business Ethics, Longenecker, J. G., McKinney, J. London: Bloomsbury. Kim, D., Fisher, D., & McCalman, D. (2009). They argue that both Conscious Capitalism and Economy of Communion strive to participate in the common good, although they differ in their respective manners of linking community good and personal good. Reading Time: 9 minutes. (2011). 79–91). Marketing with integrity: Ethics and the service-dominant logic for marketing. Christianity played a role in ending practices such as human sacrifice, slavery, infanticide and polygamy. 26 27 28. And we cannot deny that in the past, in the name of Christ, injustices have been wrongly perpetrated. It is necessary to investigate how these Christian principles, and their founding values, can be successfully translated into business and management. The marketplace is a great place for Christians right now. In the Middle Ages, Scholasticism emerged as a theological and philosophical school of thought, with another giant, Thomas Aquinas (thirteenth century). Available at: http://via.library.depaul.edu/jrbe/vol2/iss2/1. In search of a common ethical ground: Corporate environmental responsibility from the perspective of Christian environmental stewardship. Francis. Doing Business in Islamic Countries: The Impact of Faith-Based Practices on Markets January 28, 2002 January 23 — With 1.3 billion people, a rich endowment of natural resources, and large pools of capital, Islamic nations are a significant piece of the global economy. Abela, A. V. (2001). On this latter point, Christian leaders, such as Pope Francis, insist on “the rich heritage of Christian spirituality, the fruit of twenty centuries of personal and communal experience, has a precious contribution to make to the renewal of humanity” (Francis 2015, n. 216). Introduction. A., & Moreira, J. M. (2010). John XXIII. ), Handbook of the philosophical foundations of business ethics (pp. A. In fact, in the Bible—the crucial source of Christian ethics, as noted above—we find significant concepts now widely used in ethics and business ethics, for example the concept of “human dignity,” adopted by several secular ethical systems and included in the Preamble of the UN Universal Declarations of the Human Rights, n. 32. He focuses on the new field of business scholarship called positive organizational scholarship (POS) (Cameron 2003; Cameron and Spreitzer 2012), which emerged at the beginning of this century at the University of Michigan and is receiving increasing admiration. Journal of Business Ethics, Jesus displayed an incredible ability to cut through the issues of His day and address the question that lay at the very core of each personality. Elegido, J. M. (2003). . Faldetta, G. (2011). Aumann, J. The purpose of Christianity in this world is basically three things: Money. A personalistic view of work within the organization and some labor rights were defended by Pope Leo XIII (1891). We read that at the beginning, “The Lord God took the man and put him in the Garden of Eden to till it and keep it” (Bible, Genesis 2:15). Profit and more: Catholic social teaching and the purpose of the firm. PCJP (Pontificium Consilium Justice and Peace). However, concepts now widely developed such as spiritual leadership (e.g., Fry 2003) and workplace spirituality (e.g., Giacalone and Jurkiewicz 2003) can be considered from the perspective of Christian spirituality. 99(1), 37–49. This article introduces a special issue which, we hope, will make its own small contribution to the developments of both Christian ethics and spirituality in the leading business organizations. Available at http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/pontifical_councils/justpeace/documents/rc_pc_justpeace_doc_20060526_compendio-dott-soc_en.html. New revised standard version (Catholic edition). KEY WORDS: Christianity, business ethics, modernism, religion, worldview. - Employees want religious beliefs and practices to be accommodated, including time during the workday for rituals, and time off from work for observances. In the twentieth century, Christian Churches, and particularly the Roman Catholic Church, have championed many relevant moral issues connected to business ethics. Browntown, CT: Sophia Institute Press. Exploring the principle of subsidiarity in organizational forms. Alford, H. J., & Naughton, M. J. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available, The Ethics of Business in a Global Economy John XXIII. Among these works, there are some related to the economic system and marketplace (Hill and Downers 1997; Jones 1997; Bayer 1999; Longenecker et al. London: St. Paul Press. PCJP (Pontificium Consilium Justice and Peace). Perspectives of the Catholic social tradition. In addition, several scholars have published collective works (Melé and Dierksmeier 2012; Melé and Schlag 2015) and special issues (Journal of Business Ethics, vol 7, n. 6, 1988; vol 12, n. 12, 1993; vol. How should Christian values impact business ethics in the office? Encyclical-letter ‘Veritatis Splendor’, on Christian morals? In the last few hundred years there have been three new views on Christianity to take root in society and impact the world and they were; Neo-Orthodox, Evangelism and Liberalism. Posted on Sunday, July 30, 2017. Responding to the demands of human reason, moral theology entails internal logic and reasonability, making it significant for constructive dialogue with other positions. Dordrecht, Heidelberg: Springer. In the sixteenth century, the prominent reformers Martin Luther and John Calvin recovered some insights from St. Augustin for a renewed view of Christian Ethics. Delbecq, A. L. (1999). New York: Palgrave MacMillan. The good stewards: Practical applications of the papal social vision of work. (2012). By Vejas Liulevicius, Ph.D., Universtity of Tennessee The printing press, when invented by Johann Gutenberg in the 1400s, had an immense impact on the world as it existed then. A great challenge was also proclaimed by other moral voices. Lee, K.-H., McCann, D. P., & Ching, M. (2003). Indianapolis, IN: The Robert K. Greenleaf Center. Journal of Religion and Business Ethics, 2(2), Art. Business Ethics Quarterly, That therefore begs the question, what does the Bible say about business? There is no way that the full impact of Christianity can be measured. Christian ethics. Paul VI. Available at www.vatican.va. It celebrates the goodness of creation and of human culture. Cortright, S. A., & Naughton, M. J. Journal of Human Values, This innate human faculty constantly inclines decision makers toward the discovery of the human good and consequently to universal moral principles. According to Pope Francis, “tilling” refers to cultivating, ploughing, or working, while “keeping” means caring for, protecting, overseeing, and preserving, and “this implies a relationship of mutual responsibility between human beings and nature” (Francis 2015, n. 67). Naughton, M. J., Buckeye, J. G., Goodpaster, K. E., & Maines, T. D. (2015). As we will see below, Christian ethics in economics and business has a long tradition but still needs future developments. Capitalism and Christianity: The possibility of Christian personalism. Melé, D. (2012a). Greenleaf, R. K. (1977). Wogaman, J. P. (1993). Naughton, M., & Specht, D. (2011). This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. (1998). Journal of Business Ethics, A catechism for business: Tough ethical questions and insights from catholic teaching. Compendium of the social doctrine of the Church. 4(1), 33–75. 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